Umar was a man of many distinctions. A study of his life shows that in many respects he had the unique  distinction of being the first or foremost. Here under an attempt is made to catalogue the matters in which  Umar was the foremost.

He was unique in his power of discrimination. The Holy Prophet conferred on him the title of ‘Al-Farooq’.

Among his contemporaries he was the foremost in the matter of knowledge and learning.

He had the unique distinction of having his views confirmed by the Holy Quran.

His superiority over his contemporaries was acknowledged when the Holy Prophet said that if there was  to be a prophet after him, it would have been Umar.

He was the first Muslim ruler to be known by the title of Amir-ul-Mo’minin.

The conquests made by him exceeded in extent the conquests made by any other Muslim ruler  throughout the course of history.

He was the first Muslim ruler to establish public treasury.

He was the first Muslim ruler to establish courts of justice and appoint judges.

He was the first Muslim ruler to establish the Army Department and assign regular salaries to the men in  the armed forces.

He was the first to create army reserves.

He established the land revenue department for the first time.

He was the first ruler under whom the survey and assessment work of lands was undertaken.

He was the first Muslim ruler to take a census.

He was the first Muslim ruler to strike coins.

He was the first Muslim ruler to dig canals.

He was the first Muslim ruler to found cities.

He was the first Muslim ruler to divide the country into provinces and provinces into districts.

He imposed the customs duty for the first time.

He was the first to set up jails.

He was the first to organize the Police Department.

He was the first among the Muslim rulers to establish Military Centers and Military Cantonments at  strategic points.

He established cavalry. He set up stables at strategic points. He created the distinction of pedigree and  nonpedigree horses.

He established guest-houses in all cities. He established rest-houses on the road from Madina to Mecca  for the comfort of travelers.

He provided for the care and bringing up of foundlings.

He laid down that no Arab could be made a slave.

He gave stipends to the poor.

He established schools throughout the country. He allowed liberal salaries to school teachers.

He was the first who instituted the prayers of Tarawih in congregation in the mosque in the month of  Ramazan.

He was the first to formulate the principle of Qiyas.

He had the formula “Prayer is better than sleep” inserted in the call for morning prayers.

He was the first to provide light in mosques at nights.

He was the first to provide salaries for Imams and Muezzins.

He was the first to organize sermons in mosques.

He was the first to punish for writing satires and lampoons.

He was the first to prohibit the mention of women’s names in lyric poems, an ancient custom in Arabia.

He was the first to inflict eighty stripes for indulgence in wine.

He was the first to prohibit ‘Muta’ah’-marriage for a limited term.

He was the first to forbid the sale of female slaves, who had borne children to their masters.

He was the first who assembled the people to prayers over the dead with four Takbirs.

He was the first to enlarge and pave the Prophet’s mosque at Madina.

He was the first to expel non-Muslims from Arabia. The Jews from Hijaz were transferred to Syria, and the  Christians from Nijran were transferred to Kufah.

He was the first to place the law of inheritance on a sound basis.

He was the first to establish trusts.

Holy Prophet’s Assessment Of Umar

A number of traditions have come down to us which speak of the Holy Prophet’s assessment of Umar.

Before the conversion of Umar to Islam, the prayer of the Holy Prophet is on record wherein he prayed “O  God, glorify Thy faith by the conversion of Umar.”

There is a tradition that when Umar was converted to Islam the Holy Prophet said that Gabriel had visited  him to say “O Muhammad, verily the dwellers in Heaven rejoice with you at the conversion of Umar.”

According to Abu Hurrayrah, the Holy Prophet once related a dream in the presence of Umar. The Holy  Prophet related, “While I was asleep, I saw myself in paradise, and beheld there a woman performing her  ablutions by the side of a house. I enquired whose house it was, and I was told that it was Umar’s. The  lady said that she belonged to Umar. Then recollecting how jealous Umar was in the matter of women, I  turned back, and thereafter I woke up”. Hearing this, Umar said, “O Prophet of God, everything of mine is  at your service; how can I be jealous of you in any matter?”

On another occasion, the Holy Prophet had another dream. He related:

“While I was asleep, I dreamt that I drank milk. Then that milk began to flow from my fingers. That milk I  asked Umar to drink, and he drank to his fill.” The Holy Prophet was asked to interpret the dream and he  said that the dream signified that among his followers, Umar would excel every one in knowledge.

According to another tradition, the Holy Prophet said, “While I was asleep, I saw the people presented to  me. These people wore garments. Some had garments reaching to their breasts, and some had garments  which reached their toes. Then Umar was presented, and upon him was a garment which was so long  that he dragged it as he moved”. The Holy Prophet was requested to interpret the dream. The Holy  Prophet said that the significance of the dream was that Umar would be a source of strength and service  to Islam.

Al-Bukhari carries a tradition according to which the Holy Prophet said that there was to be no prophet  after him, but if there were to be no bar to such prophethood, Umar would have been the prophet. That  was the highest tribute that the Holy Prophet could pay to Umar.

According to another tradition the Holy Prophet said, “Verily God has placed truth upon the tongue of  Umar, and upon his heart.” According to an allied tradition, the Holy Prophet said, “Never did a thing come  upon the people, and they said one thing regarding it, and Umar another, but the Qur’an revealed it after  the manner that Umar had said. The greatest tribute was paid to Umar, when the Holy Prophet said, “God  speaks through the tongue of ;Umar.”

There is a tradition that Gabriel once came to the Holy Prophet and said, “Greet Umar with a salutation,  and tell him that his anger is glory and his approval, command.”

According to a tradition, the Holy Prophet said, “Umar is the lamp of the dwellers in paradise.”

A tradition is on record according to which pointing to Umar the Holy Prophet said, “Umar is a strongly  bolted gate against discord. As long as he lives in your midst, there will be no discord among the  Muslims.”

We have it on the authority of ‘Ayesha that the Holy Prophet said, “Verily I behold the evil spirits among  genii and men, fleeing from Umar”. In the same strain the Holy Prophet said, “Verily Satan avoideth  Umar.”

There is another tradition according to which the Holy Prophet said, “There is not an angel in Heaven, but  he revereth Umar, and not a demon on earth but he fleeth from Umar.”,

On the occasion of the last pilgrimage the Holy Prophet said, “Verily God approved of the conduct of the  pilgrims at Arafat in general and Umar in particular”.

There is a tradition that in the days of his illness the Holy Prophet said, “The Truth after me is with Umar,  wherever he may be.”

About Umar’s victory against Satan, the Holy Prophet said, “Verily Satan hath never met Umar since his  conversion, but he hath fallen prostrate on his face.”

According to a tradition the Holy Prophet said, “Gabriel said to me, ‘verily Islam will weep at the death of  Umar.”

According to a tradition the Holy Prophet expressed his attachment to Umar in the following terms: “He  who hateth Umar hates me, and he who loveth Umar loves me”.

The Holy Prophet’s Joint Tributes To Abu Bakr And Umar

Some traditions have come down to us “hereunder the Holy Prophet paid joint tributes to Abu Bakr and  Umar.

Abu Hurrayrah said:

“I heard the Holy Prophet say, ‘while a shepherd was in the midst of his flock, a wolf rushed upon it and  carried from it a sheep and the shepherd pursued it, the wolf turned to him and said, who will be a  protector to it on the day of resurrection-the day when there will be no other shepherd than myself. As a  man was driving an ox which he had laden, it turned to him and said, Verily I was not created for this but  for tillage.”

The companions cried, “Good God! Should an ox talk.” The Holy Prophet said:

“I believe in it, and likewise Abu Bakr and Umar.”

This is indicative of the Holy Prophet’s trust in the faith of Abu Bakr and Umar.

The Holy Prophet said:

“There was never a prophet but he had two Ministers from the dwellers in heaven and two Ministers from  among the dwellers on earth. My two Ministers of the dwellers of heaven are Gabriel and Michael, and of  the earth Abu Bakr and Umar’.”

It is related in a tradition that one day the Holy Prophet entered the mosque with Abu Bakr and Umar,  one of them on his right hand, and the other upon his left. He held their hands and said:

“Thus shall we arise on the Day of Judgment.”

According to another tradition, the Holy Prophet looked on Abu Bakr and Umar and said:

“They are my hearing and my sight.”

There is another tradition according to which turning to Abu Bakr and Umar, the Holy Prophet said:

“Praise be to God, Who has strengthened me with ye two.” On one occasion, addressing Abu Bakr and  Umar, the Holy Prophet said:

“If you two are agreed upon any matter, I would not oppose you.”

The Holy Prophet also said:

“Every prophet has chosen ones among his people and verily my elect from among my companions are  Abu Bakr and Umar.”

The Holy Prophet said:

“Love towards Abu Bakr and Umar is faith; hatred towards them is infidelity.”

The Holy Prophet said on another occasion:

“Love towards Abu Bakr and Umar and a knowledge of them is an injunction of the law.”

The Holy Prophet also said:

“Verily I hope for the same benefit for my people by their profession of love towards Abu Bakr and Umar  that I hope for them by their profession of faith there is no god but God’.”

Assessment Of Umar By The Companions

Abu Bakr said about Umar, “There is not upon the face of the earth a man dearer to me then Umar.”  When Abu Bakr was on his death bed, it was said to him, “What will you say to God, now that you have  appointed Umar as your successor?” Abu Bakr said, “I will say to Him that I appointed over His people the  man who was the best among them all.”

After the death of Umar, Ali said in the course of one of his sermons:

“When Umar became the Caliph, there were some people who approved of his caliphate and there were  some who disagreed. During his caliphate he administered the affairs of the State strictly on the lines laid  down by the Holy Prophet and his successor Abu Bakr. He followed them in the same way as a child  follows its mother. Verily he was a pillar of strength for the weak, the poor, and the aggrieved. He was for  the Muslims a source of honor, prosperity and victory. Nothing stood in his way in promoting the cause of  Truth. He was so discriminating in truth that we come to believe that the angel spoke through his tongue.  By being converted to Islam, he became a source of honor and strength for Islam His migration was a  cause of strengthening the religion of Islam. God made the infidels fear Umar, and the pious Muslims love  him. As he was very harsh with the enemies of Islam, the Holy Prophet compared Umar to Gabriel. As he  had a fiery temper the Holy Prophet compared him to Nuh, O ye Muslims bear in mind that after the Holy  Prophet, among his followers the two best persons were Abu Bakr, and Umar.”

Ali used to say, “When the righteous are mentioned, then be quick and mention Umar.” Ali also said “We  used to say not without reason that the Divine Presence spoke by the tongue of Umar.”

Abu ‘Ubaida bin Al-Jarah, the Commander-in-Chief of the Muslim forces in Syria said:

“When Umar will die, Islam will be disgraced. I do not wish that I should survive Umar. I wish to die during  the life-time of Umar.”

‘Abdullah bin ‘Abbes said:

“May God bless the soul of Umar. By God he was a pillar of strength for Islam. He was the shelter for the  orphans and the widows. By his conduct he fortified the faith of others. He was a model Muslim. The weak  relied on him for the redress of their grievances. He was a great helper of the people. As a Caliph he  promoted the interests of Islam. Under him the standard of Islam was carried east and west, and the call  to prayers could be heard in plains and on hills even in distant lands. In the states when he was hard or  humble he maintained the dignity of Islam. He remembered God at all times. He was indeed the gem of a  man. May Allah humiliate the person who talks ill of Umar, or bears him any enmity.”

Ibn Masiud said:

“If the wisdom of Umar were placed in the scale of a balance, and the wisdom of living things upon the  earth in the other scale, the wisdom of Umar would outweigh them, and verily the people used to think  that Umar carried nine-tenth of the wisdom of the world.”

Ibn Mas’ud on another occasion said:

“Verily Umar was the most learned of us all in the Book of God, and most profoundly versed in the  religious ordinances of Allah.”

On the death of Umar, Ibn Mas’ud said:

“Umar was the fort of Islam. The people could enter the fort but could not come out of it. With the death  of Umar that fort has fallen and now people would come out of it.” ‘Abbas said about Umar:

“I was a neighbor of Umar. After the Holy Prophet I have not found any person superior to Umar in the  love of God. He spent the greater part of night in prayer. Throughout the day he worked hard to win the  pleasure of Allah”.

On the death of Umar, Saeed b. Zaid said:

“With the death of Umar, Islam has come to grief. His death has caused a breach in the citadel of Islam  which would not be filled up.”

Abu Hudhaifa said:

“It is as if the wisdom of mankind lay hidden in the bossom of Umar. By Allah I know not a man whom the  reproof of the censurer in what relateth to the service of God, does not touch, but Umar.” He also said,  “In the time of Umar Islam attained the climax of glory. After his death Islam will have to face difficulties.”

‘Ayesha said of him “By Allah, Umar was active in affairs, singly undertaking their management.”

Abu Talha Ansari said, “By God, there is no Muslim household which has not suffered because of the  death of Umar.”

Ibn Umar said, “I never saw any one after the Holy Prophet, from the time that he died, any person more  vehement and yet more beneficent than Umar.”

Ibn ‘Abbas was asked about Umar, and he said, ” Umar was like a wary bird who apprehended a snare at  every step to trap it.”

Amir Muawiyah said, “Abu Bakr sought not the world, and the world sought him not. In the case of Umar,  the world sought him, but he sought it not.”

Assessment By Western Writers

In his book “Lives of Successors of Muhammad”, Washington Irving estimates the achievements of Umar  in the following terms:

“The whole history of Umar shows him to have been a man of great powers of mind, inflexible integrity  and rigid justice. He was more than any one else the founder of the Islamic empire; confirming and  carrying out the inspirations of the Prophet; aiding Abu Bakr with his counsels during his brief Caliphate;  and establishing wise regulations for the strict administration of the law throughout the rapidly-extending  bounds of the Muslim conquests. The rigid hand which he kept upon his most popular generals in the  midst of their armies, and in the most distant scenes of their triumphs, gives signal evidence of his  extra-ordinary capacity to rule. In the simplicity of his habits, and his contempt for all pomp and luxury, he  emulated the example of the Prophet and Abu Bakr. He endeavored incessantly to impress the merit and  policy of the same in his letters to his generals. ‘Beware’ he would say of Persian luxury both in food and  raiment. Keep to the simple habits of your country, and Allah will continue you victorious; depart from  them and He will reverse your fortunes’. It was his strong conviction of the truth of this policy which made  him so severe in punishing all ostentatious style and luxurious indulgence in his officers. Some of his  ordinances do credit to his heart as well as his head. He forbade that any female captive who had borne  a child should be sold as a slave. In his weekly distributions of the surplus money of his treasury, he  proportioned them to the wants, not the merits of the applicants. ‘God’ said he, ‘has bestowed the good  things of this world to relieve our necessities, not to reward our virtues: those will be rewarded in  another world’.”

In his book “The Caliphate, its Rise, Decline and Fall” Sir William Muir says as follows about Umar:

“Umar’s life requires but few lines to sketch. Simplicity and duty were his guiding principles; impartiality  and devotion the leading features of his administration. Responsibility so weighed upon him that he was  heard to exclaim ‘O that my mother had not borne me; would that I had been this stalk of grass instead!’  In early life, of a fiery and impatient temper, he was known, even in the later days of the Prophet, as the  stern advocate of vengeance. Ever ready to unsheathe the sword, it was he who at Badr advised that  the prisoners should be put to death. But age, as well as office, had now mellowed this asperity. His  sense of justice was strong. And except it be the treatment of Khalid, whom according to some accounts,  he pursued with an ungenerous resentment, no act of tyranny or injustice is recorded against him; and  even in this matter, his enmity took its rise in Khalid’s unscrupulous treatment of fallen foe. The choice of  his captains and governors was free from favoritism and (Al-Mughira and Ammar excepted) singularly  fortunate. The various tribes and bodies in the empire, representing interests the most diverse, reposed  in his integrity implicit confidence, and his strong arm maintained the discipline of law and empire. . . Whip  in hand he would perambulate the streets and markets of Madina, ready to punish slanders on the spot;  and so the proverb Umar’s whip is more terrible than another’s sword’. But with all this he was tender  hearted, and numberless acts of kindness are recorded of him, such as relieving the wants of the widows  and the fatherless.”

In his classical work “The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Gibbon refers to Umar in the following  terms:

“Yet the abstinence and humility of Umar were not inferior to the virtues of Abu Bakr: his food consisted of  barley bread or dates; his drink was water; he preached in a gown that was torn or tattered in twelve  places; and a Persian satrap, who paid his homage as to the conqueror, found him asleep among the  beggars on the steps of the mosque of Muslims. Economy is the source of liberality, and the increases of  the revenue enabled Umar to establish a just and perpetual reward for the past and present services of  the faithful. Careless of his own emolument, he assigned to Abbas, the uncle of the Prophet, the first and  most ample allowance of twenty-five thousand dirhams of pieces of silver. Five thousand were allotted to  each of the aged warriors? The relics of the field of Badr and the last and the meanest of the companions  of Mohammad was distinguished by the annual reward of three thousand pieces. Under his reign and that  of his predecessors, the conquerors of the East were the trusty servants of God and the people; the  mass of public treasure was consecrated to the expenses of peace and war; a prudent mixture of justice  and bounty maintained the discipline of the Saracens, and then united, by a rare felicity, the dispatch and  execution of despotism with the equal and frugal maxims of a republican government.”

In his book “History of the Arabs” Professor Philip K. Hitti has assessed the achievements of Umar in the  following terms:

“Simple and frugal in manner the energetic and talented Umar (634-644) who was of towering height,  strong physique and bald headed, continued at least for some time after becoming the Caliph to support  himself by trade and lived throughout his life in a style as unostentatious as that of a Bedouin Sheikh. In  fact, Umar, whose name according to Muslim tradition is the greatest in early Islam after that of  Mohammad, has been idolized by Muslim writers for his piety, justice and patriarchal simplicity and treated  as the personification of all the virtues a Caliph ought to possess. His irreproachable character became an  exemplar for all conscientious successors to follow. He owned, we are told, one shirt and one mantle only,  both conspicuous for their patchwork, slept on a bed of palm leaves, and had no concern other than the  maintenance of the purity of the faith, the upholding of justice and the ascendancy and security of Islam  and the Arabians. Arabic literature is replete with anecdotes extolling Umar’s stern character. He is said to  have scourged his own son to death for drunkenness. Having in a fit of anger inflicted a number of stripes  on a Bedouin who came seeking his succor against an oppressor, the Caliph soon repented and asked  the Bedouin to inflict the same number on him. But the latter refused. So Umar retired to his home with  the following soliloquy: ‘O son of Al-Khattab humble thou wert and Allah has elevated thee, thou went  astray, and Allah hath guided thee; thou were weak, and Allah hath strengthened thee. Then He caused  thee to rule over the necks of thy people, and when one of them came seeking thy aid thou didst strike  him! What wilt thou have to say to thy Lord when thou presentest thyself before Him’. The one who fixed  the Hijrah as the commencement of the Muslim era, presided over the conquest of large portions of the  then known world, instituted the state register and organized the government of the new empire, met a  tragic and sudden death at the very zenith of his life when he was struck down by the poisoned dagger  of a Christian Persian slave in the midst of his own congregation.”

“The Encyclopedia Britannica” remarks about Umar:

“To Umar’s ten years’ Caliphate belong, for the most part, the great conquests. He himself did not take  the field, but remained in Madina; he never, however, suffered the reins to slip from his grasp, so  powerful was the influence of his personality and the Muslim community of feeling. His political insight is  shown by the fact that he endeavored to limit the indefinite extension of Muslim conquest, to maintain  and strengthen the national Arabian character of the commonwealth of Islam; also by making it his  foremost task to promote law and order in its internal affairs. The saying with which he began his reign  will never grow antiquated: ‘By God, he that is weakest among you shall be in my eye the strongest, until  I have vindicated for him his rights; he that is strongest I will treat as the weakest, until he complies with  the law’. It would be impossible to give a better general definition of the function of the State.”

Assessment Of Umar By Oriental Writers

In his book “History of Egypt”, Jurji Zaidan, a Christian historian has paid a tribute to Umar in the following  words:

“In his time various countries were conquered, spoils were multiplied, the treasures of the Persian and  Roman Emperors were poured in streams before his troops, nevertheless he himself manifested a degree  of abstemiousness and moderation which was never surpassed. He addressed the people clad in a  garment patched with leather. He was himself the first to practice what he preached. He kept a vigilant  eye over the Governors and Generals and enquired strictly into their conduct. Even the great Khalid bin  Walid was not spared. He was just to all mankind and was kindly even to non-Muslims. Iron discipline was  maintained every where during his reign.”

In his well known book “History of the Saracens”, Justice Syed Amir Ali has rated Umar in the following  terms:

“The death of Umar was a real calamity to Islam. Stern, but just, far-sighted, thoroughly versed in the  character of his people, he was especially fitted for the leadership of the unruly Arabs. He had held the  helm with a strong hand and severely repressed the natural tendency to demoralization among nomadic  tribes and semi-civilized people when coming in contact with the luxury and vices of cities. He had  established the Diwan or the Department of Finance, to which was entrusted the administration of the  revenues; and had introduced fixed rules for the government of the provinces. He was a man of towering  height, strong build, and fair complexion. Of simple habits, austere and frugal, always accessible to the  meanest of his subjects, wandering about at night to inquire into the condition of the people, without any  guard of court, such was the greatest and the most powerful ruler of the time.”

Shah Wali Ullah has described the talents and achievements of Umar graphically in the following terms:

“Imagine the heart of Umar as a house with many gates. At each gate is seated a noble genius. At one  gate stands Alexander the Great with all his genius for conquering countries, commanding armies and  vanquishing foes. At another gates sits Anushirwan with all his gentleness, magnanimity, justice, and  love of his subjects. And yet at another gate sits a spiritual leader like Syed Abdul Qadir Gilani or Khawaja  Bahauddin. At another gate sits Hadith specialists like Abu Huraira and Ibn Umar, and yet at another gate  sit thinkers of the caliber of Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi and Sheikh Fariduddin Attar. And people are standing  around this house and every needy one represents his need to the Imam of his branch of knowledge and  goes away satisfied.”

Put in simpler words, this tribute means that:

Umar was a great Conqueror, greater than Alexander;

Umar excelled Anushirwan in justice;

Umar was a great spiritual leader;

Umar was a specialist in Hadith;

Umar was a great thinker;

Umar excelled in all branches of knowledge.

Sayings Of Umar

Umar was known for his great knowledge and wisdom. He often expressed his thoughts in words  conspicuous for their wisdom. A number of his sayings have come down to us, and these show the depths  and dimensions of his thoughts and expressions. We give hereunder the various sayings attributed to  Umar, which we have been able to gather from various sources:

“He who keeps his own counsel keeps his affairs in his own hands.”

“Fear him, whom you hate.”

“The wisest man is he who can account for his actions.”

“Do not put off today’s work for tomorrow.”

“Money cannot help lifting its head.”

“What regresses. never progresses.”

“He who does not know evil will fall into it.”

“When a man puts me a question, I judge of his intelligence.”

“Don’t forget your own self while preaching to others.”

“The less of the world, the freer you live.”

“Avoidance of sin is lighter than the pain of remorse.”

“On every dishonest man, there are two watchmen, his possessions, and his way of living.”

“If patience and gratitude had been two she camels, it would have mattered little on which I rode.”

“May God have mercy on him who sends me my faults as a present.”

“Preserve the sayings of those people who are indifferent to the world. They say only that what God  wishes them to say.”

“Fear God, for He alone lives; all other things are liable to perish.”

“The wisest among you is he whose sustenance is the fear of God.”

“Praise God, for by praise His blessings multiply.”

“Fear God, for that is fortune; indifference to God is misfortune.”

“Be patient; patience is a pillar of faith.”

“Acquire knowledge and teach it to the people”

“Be dignified, honest, and truthful”

“Do not be an arrogant scholar, for scholarship cannot subsist with arrogance”.

“When you see that any scholar loves the world, then his scholarship is in doubt”.

“God forbid, men should be jealous of knowledge as they are jealous of women.”

“May God bless the man who says less and does more.”

“The criterion of action is that today’s work should not be deferred till the following day.”

“Trust is that there should be no difference between what you do and say and what you think.”

“Learn the Arabic language; it will sharpen your wisdom.” “Luxury is an obstacle, and so is the fatness of  the body.”

“A man may be as straight as an arrow, but even then he will have some critics.”

“O Allah do not give me in excess lest I may be disobedient to You. And do not give me less, lest I may  forget You.”

“Allah loves moderation and hates extravagance and excess.”

“He who went to the kings to seek favors went away from God.”

“Sit with those who love God, for that enlightens the mind.”

“Before Allah that is the best dinner which people eat together.”

“As long as you are pure of heart, you speak the truth.”

“The pilgrims are the delegations of God.”

“If your ruler is just, praise God; if he is unjust, pray to God to rid you of him.”

“Allah is happy with such rulers whose slaves are under their control.”

“Forgive the people so that God may forgive you.”

“For the people prefer that which you prefer for yourself.

Which you do not wish for yourself, do not impose on others.”

“In the eyes of God he is the best ruler who has secured prosperity and comfort for the people.”

“That ruler is most accursed whose misconduct leads to the distress of the people.”

“Every ruler should keep his door open to the people.”

“Understand the teachings of the Holy Quran for that is the source of knowledge.”

“Relate as few traditions as possible, lest by being involved in traditions the people overlook the Quran.”

“All the injunctions of Islam are based on reason.”

“The way to express gratitude to God is to give Zakat out of the property that He has bestowed on you.”

“In my view your greatest obligation is to offer prayers.

He who fulfils this obligation with great regularity will be secure in his religion.”

“He who sleeps without offering the night prayer, may he never enjoy a sound sleep.”

“Women should offer Zakat on their ornaments.”

“Blessed are those who are martyred in the way of Allah.”

“In the preparation of Islam, commit no excess.”

“Without consultation, the caliphate is unlawful.”

“The ruler whose intention is good will have the help of God in the administration of his affairs; he whose  intention is bad will come to disgrace.”

“Do not accept gifts; that is bribery.”

“The Judge should always uphold the principle of equality before law.”

“May God curse the people who hesitate to dine with the slaves.”

“Do not be misled by a person’s prayers and fasting; look to his sincerity and wisdom.”

“Do not be misled by hearing of any one’s reputation.”

“He trusts in God who sows seed in the ground then depends on God.”

“Earning of livelihood by following some profession is better than living on charity.”

“He who has any public responsibility should perform his duties without caring for criticism.”

“He is to be preferred who has the urge to sin, but does not sin.”

“Do not depend upon the morality of a person until you have seen him behave while in anger.”

“I am surprised at three things. Man runs from death while death is inevitable. One sees minor faults of  others, but overlooks his own major faults. When there is any defect to one’s cattle he tries to cure it, but  does not cure his own defects.”

“To flatter is to slaughter.”

“He, who pretends to be what he is not, is a hypocrite.”

“If a person has ten habits out of which nine are good and one bad, that bad one will destroy the good  ones.”

“Do not overeat; that invites disease.”

“He who wins through fraud is no winner.”

“He who wants paradise should hold fast to the community. ”

“The efficacy of a prayer depends not on the words but on the sincerity of intention.”

“In the narration of facts refrain from poetising.”

“When you do not know of a thing say so plainly.”

“O I am not worried about the poverty of the Muslims. I am afraid lest by getting rich they might become  proud and thereby invite destruction. ”

“In the performance of your duties neither be over zealous, nor indifferent.”

Umar’s Gift Of Forecasting

Umar was blessed with the gift of forecasting events by playing upon the meaning of words.

When on the eve of the battle of Nihawand, the Governor of Kufa sent a messenger to Umar, he forecast  the coming events by asking the messenger his name and the name of his father. When the messenger  said that his name was ‘Qareeb’ meaning ‘near’, and his father’s name was ‘Zafar’ meaning ‘victory’, Umar  forecast that for the Muslims victory was near.

It is recorded that once a man waited on Umar. He asked him what was his name. He said that his name  was ‘Jamrah’, meaning a live coal.

Umar then asked him about his father’s name, and he said that his father’s name was ‘Shihab’ meaning  ‘flame’.

Umar then enquired to which tribe he belonged. He said that he belonged to the tribe of ‘Al-Harrah’,  meaning ‘heat’.

He was asked where did he live and he replied ‘Al-Harqah’ meaning ‘warmth’.

Umar asked him what was his clan and he said ‘sat Ladha’ meaning ‘blazing’.

Then Umar said:

“Go home, for all your people have been burnt.”

When the man went home, he found that his family had been burnt to death.

It was a custom with the Egyptians that a virgin was thrown in the river Nile to secure a rise in the  surface of the water. When the Muslims conquered Egypt this inhuman practice was stopped. Instead of  a virgin a card written by Umar was thrown in the river, and immediately the water rose in the river.

It is on record that when a contingent of the Muslim army under Sariyah fighting in Fars were exposed to  danger, Umar while delivering Friday sermon in the Prophet’s mosque shouted ‘Sariyah to the hills’. The  command was listened to by the Muslims in the battlefield thousand miles away and was complied with  resulting in victory for the Muslims.

Umar had a highly developed sense of discriminating the truth from falsehood. Whenever a person spoke  the truth, Umar would listen to him attentively, but whenever a person spoke anything false, Umar would  promptly say “withhold that”.

It is related that the people of Kufa pelted their Governor with stones. When Umar heard of this he was  much annoyed. He was distracted even in his prayer. When he came to the salutation he said:

“O God verily they have put confusion on me. O Allah you put confusion upon them, and place over them a  youth of the Banu Thaqif who may rule over them after the manner of the rule of the time of Ignorance.”

This forecast came true when al Hajjaj came to rule over Iraq in the time of the Umayyads.

When Allah Corroborated Umar

Many instances are on record when Umar gave a particular opinion and that opinion was later on  corroborated by Allah and conurmation thereof was communicated to the Holy Prophet through Gabriel.  That is why the Holy Prophet repeatedly said:

“God speaks through the tongue of Umar.”

Umar suggested that the station of Abraham in Mecca should be used as a place of prayer. Later an  injunction to this effect was revealed to the Holy Prophet.

Umar suggested that the wives of the Holy Prophet should be veiled. Later a verse was revealed  enjoining the wives of the Holy Prophet to be veiled.

Umar suggested that the use of wine should be prohibited. Thereafter God enjoined the prohibition of  wine.

‘Abdullah b. Ubbay though a Muslim was insincere in his professions and was the enemy of God and the  Holy Prophet. When he died the Holy Prophet led his funeral prayer. Umar suggested that the Holy  Prophet should not pray at the funeral of those who were the enemies of God and the Prophet. A verse  was later revealed enjoining the Holy Prophet not to pray at the funeral of those who were the enemies  of God and His Prophet.

When there was an imputation against the conduct of ‘Ayesha, Umar said that this was a grievous  calumny. Later a verse was revealed declaring the episode as a calumny and establishing ‘Ayesha’s  innocence.

After the battle of Badr, it was decided that the prisoners of the Quraish should be released on ransom.  Umar said that the prisoners being the enemies of God should be killed. Later according to a revelation  the Holy Prophet was enjoined that the enemies of God should be killed.

When the Azan was originally proposed the contents of the call were:

“I testify that there is no god but Allah-come ye to prayers.”

Umar suggested, “The words ‘I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of God’ should be added”. A  revelation corroborated this suggestion.

The practice was that people went to see the Holy Prophet unannounced. Umar suggested that all  visitors should seek permission before being admitted to the presence of the Holy Prophet. A verse was  later revealed enjoining the asking of permission before entering the presence of the Holy Prophet.

Once two persons to a dispute referred the case to the Holy Prophet and the Holy Prophet gave his  verdict. One of them appealed against the decision of the Holy Prophet. Umar slew him with his sword. A  verse was revealed absolving Umar from the death of the person who did not believe in the judgment of  the Holy Prophet.

Once a Jew said to Umar, “Verily Gabriel who speaks to your Master is our enemy.” Umar retorted,  “Whosoever is an enemy to God, or His angels, or His Apostles, or Gabriel, or Michael, verily God is an  enemy to the unbelievers.” Later a verse was revealed declaring that God was the enemy of unbelievers.

Wives And Children Of Umar

Before his conversion to Islam, Umar had three wives. They were:

Zainab bint Mazaun Jamiah;

Malaika bint Jarul Khuzai; and

Qariba bint Umayya Makhzumi.

When Umar was converted to Islam, Zainab alone accepted Islam. After the Hudaybiah pact when God  sent the words that Muslims should not marry idolatresses, Umar divorced Malaika and Qariba.

After the Hudaybiah-pact the first Muslim woman who fled from the Quraish and sought shelter with the  Muslims was Sabiha bint Al-Haris. Her husband did not accept Islam. When the Quraish came to demand  the restoration of Sabiha, the Holy Prophet refused to return her saying that the condition in the pact  applied to men only and not to women. The Holy Prophet had Sabiha married to Umar.

In Madina, Umar married an Ansar lady Asiah bint Sabat Ansari. On marriage Umar changed her name to  Jamila. Umar resided with her at Quba, and it is reported that there was great love between Umar and  Jamila. A few years later Umar divorced her and shifted to Madina.

‘Atika bint Zaid was a cousin of Umar. She was married to ‘Abdullah a son of Abu Bakr. When her husband  died, Atika felt very disconsolate. In sympathy, Umar married her in the first year of his caliphate.

Umm Hakim was the wife of ‘Ikramah the son of Abu Jakl. ‘Ikramah died fighting and thereafter Umm  Hakim married Khalid bin Sa’id. Khalid bin Sa’id was also martyred on the Syrian front. Umm Hakim doubly  bereaved was much grieved, and Umar consoled her by marrying her.

In 639 A.D., Umar married Umm Kulsum the daughter of ‘Ali and Fatima. Till his death in 644 A D., Umm  Kulsum remained his favorite wife.

Besides these wives, Umar had two slave girls who bore him children. These were Fakiah and Layiah.

Umar’s sons included: ‘Abdullah; ‘Asim; Abu Shahma; Abdur Rahman; Zaid; ‘Iyad and Mujir. ‘Abdullah  became a convert to Islam at an early age along with his father. He made a great name for himself as an  expert in Fiqh and Hadis. ‘Ubaidullah was well known for his bravery and fighting qualities. In revenge for  the assassination of Umar, ‘Ubaidullah killed Hormuzan and some other persons. ‘Asim was known for his  poetry and piety. Umar bin ‘Abul ‘Aziz the puritan Uyymaid Caliph was his daughter’s son. Abu Shahma  was flogged to death by Umar for the offence of drinking.

The daughters of Umar included: Hafsah Fatimah, Ruqiya and Zainab. Of these Hafsah was the most  well-known as she was the wife of the Holy Prophet.

‘Abdullah, ‘Abdur Rahman Akbar, and Hafsah, were born to Zainab bint Mazaun.

‘Ubaidullah and Zaid Asghar were the sons of Umm Kulsum who was divorced after the Hudaybiah pact.

Umm Hakim was the mother of Fatimah.

‘Asim was the son of Jamila bint Sabat Ansari.

Umm Kulsum bint’Ali was the mother of Zaid and Ruqiya.

‘Iyad was the son of ‘Atika.

Layiah was the mother of ‘Abdur Rahman al-Wast.

Fatimah was the daughter of Umm Hakim.

Zainab was the daughter of Fakiah.

Umar’s Standards Of Integrity For His Family Members

Umar set up very high standards of integrity for himself and his family members. He took particular care to  see that such standards were followed strictly. Whenever Umar issued any instructions for the people to  follow, he brought home to his family members that he expected them to conform to such instructions  strictly.

He issued strict orders that no member of his family should accept any gift from any person. Hence Umar  found a new carpet with his wife Atika. He wanted to know from where the carpet had come. She said  that it had been presented by Abu Musa Ashari, the Governor of Basra. Umar had the carpet immediately  returned to Abu Musa. Abu Musa was reprimanded in strong terms for sending a gift to the wife of the  Caliph.

‘Abdullah the son of Umar purchased some camels. They were lean and were purchased cheaply.  ‘Abdullah sent these camels to the state pasture where they fattened. These were then sold in the  market and fetched a high price. When this was brought to the notice of Umar he ordered that as the  camels had been fed at the state pasture whatever profit had accrued in the sale of the camels should be  deposited in the state treasury.

Once Umar saw a small girl who was lean, thin, and emaciated. Umar enquired who the girl was. ‘Abdullah  the son of Umar said that she was his daughter, and that she had lost weight because with the  allowance that Umar allowed to his family nourishing food could not be provided. Umar said that he was  giving them what he gave to other families and he could not give his family anything more than what he  did to other families.

Once ‘Abdullah and ‘Ubaidullah two sons of Umar went to Basra. There they obtained a loan from Abu  Musa on the condition that the amount would be paid to the state treasury at Madina. With this amount  they purchased some merchandise and sold it at Madina. They earned considerable profit which they kept  for themselves and credited the principal amount in the state treasury. When Umar came to know of this  transaction he wanted his sons to credit the entire profit to the state treasury as the money with which  they had traded was state money. ‘Abdullah kept quiet but ‘Ubaidullah protested. He said that if there  had been a loss the state would not have shared it. Umar stuck to his decision, but ‘Ubaidullah protested  again. Some other companions intervened and it was decided that it should be treated as a case of  partnership. Umar allowed his sons to retain one half of the profit and to deposit the other half in the  state treasury.

Once Umar received a considerable quantity of musk. It had to be weighed and then distributed. Umar  was in search of a person who could weigh musk with meticulous care. Atika the wife of Umar offered to  do so as she was expert in the job. Umar did not accept the offer on the ground that when she weighed  and distributed it some musk would be attached to her hands and clothes and that would be  misappropriation in state property.

Once Umm Kulsum a wife of Umar purchased perfume for one dirham and sent it as a gift to the Byzantine  empress. The Byzantine empress returned the empty phials of perfume filled with gems. When Umar came  to know of this he sold the gems. Out of the sale proceeds he handed over one dirham to his wife and  the rest was deposited in the state treasury.

Once some gifts were received in the Baitul Mal. Hafsa waited on Umar and wanted a share. Umar said:

“Dear, you have a share in my personal property, but I cannot give you a special share out of the  property that belongs to the Muslims as a whole. You can get only what other Muslims get.”

His son-in-law once waited on him and wanted some assistance from the Baitul Mal. Umar paid him some  money from his own pocket, and did not give him anything from the Baitul Mal.

Once after distribution a ladies scarf was found surplus. The custodian of the Baitul Mal suggested that  this might be offered to Umm Kulsum the wife of Umar. Umar said:

“No. Present it to Umm Salit the lady who carried the water skin on her back on the day of the battle of  Uhud to distribute water among the Muslim warriors.”

Once after accounting, one dirham was found surplus in the Baitul Mal. The treasurer gave the dirham to a  small son of Umar. When Umar came to know of that he had the dirham returned immediately.

‘Abdullah a son of Umar fought in the battle of Jalaula. He got his share of the spoils and sold it on the  spot. This fetched a high value. When Umar came to know of that he said that he was allowed the high  price because people thought that he was the Caliph’s son. He ordered that the profit earned beyond the  market value should be credited to the state treasury.

One of the sons of Umar drank wine inadvertently in Egypt. He submitted himself voluntarily to the  punishment of 80 stripes at Egypt Umar was not satisfied. He called the boy to Madina and flogged him to  death. When the boy was on death bed Umar said to him, “When you meet the Holy Prophet tell him that  Umar is following hi’ injunctions strictly.”

Umar In History

During the ten years of his rule from 634 to 644 A.D., Umar changed the course of history. Emerging from  the deserts of Arabia, the Arabs fortified with the faith of Islam overpowered the Byzantine power in the  west and the mighty Persian empire in the east. During the short space of ten years the Muslims  conquered countries comprising an area of 2,251,030 square miles. Under Umar the Islamic dominions  assumed the dimensions of a continent. These extended from Mecca 1,036 miles to the north, 1.087 miles  to the east, and 483 miles to the south. These countries included Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Khuzistan, Fars,  Isfahan, Azarbeijan; Armenia, Makran and Khurasan. The dominions extended from the Oxus to the Nile.

There have been many conquerors in the course of history and the record of the conquests of Umar  compares very favorably with the record of other conquerors. In one point the conquests of Umar  surpass the conquests of all other conquerors. Whereas the conquests of other conquerors did not  endure for long, the conquests of Umar in the name of Islam have endured for the last 1,400 years.

In the history of the world, Umar accordingly occupies a prominent position. He is one of the greatest men  of all times. The passage of time has in no way dimmed the glory of his greatness. The life-story of Umar  which we have tried to narrate in these pages projects in unmistakable terms all the qualities that male  greatness. Umar lives in history as a great conqueror, a great ruler and the founder of the Muslim state.  Umar lives in legend as an embodiment of all that a great ruler or a great man should be.

The qualities and characteristics of the personality of Umar include: towering personality; robust  constitution; great power of mind; inflexible integrity; strong sense of justice; simplicity of habits;  contempt of pomp and luxury; strong faith in his mission; strong conviction for the truth; highly developed  sense of duty; absolute impartiality; devotion to Islam; extreme sense of dedication; very strong sense of  justice; sympathy for the aggrieved; courage against the oppressor; energy; piety; humility; discipline;  frugality; morality; political insight; accessibility; vigilance; patience; perseverance; accountability before  law; equality for all; and indeed all the virtues that a ruler or a leader of men should possess.

Umar was a man of great knowledge and learning. He was a good orator. Every Friday he would address  the faithful in the Prophet’s mosque at Madina. Some of the addresses that he delivered on such  occasions have come down to us and are masterpieces of religious teaching. While sending his forces on  various expeditions he addressed them in very inspiring terms. He was a good writer and some of his  letters which have come down to us show the skill of his penmanship. The instructions that he issued to  his officers to regulate statebusiness are very much modern in content. Many anecdotes about him have  come down to us, and these project his greatness, wisdom, and foresightedness. He was a good judge of  poetry. He could freely quote appropriate verses to suit the occasion. He was a good judge of men. He  could discern the truth from falsehood. He always called a spade a spade, and would never mince  matters. Whatever he regarded as the truth he spoke it even though it might appear to be bitter. He  enjoyed the reputation of being hard and harsh, but that was primarily because he always valued the  truth, and had no hesitation in expressing it even though it might be displeasing. Howsoever stern or  angry he might be, if the verses of the Holy Qur’an were read before him he would at once soften, and  even burst into sobs.

Physically as well as intellectually he was a man of towering personality. But he never tried to give the  impression that he was in any way superior to the people around him. He was a good critic, but his  criticism was not meant for others; alone it was meant for himself as well He listened to his critics with  great respect and if such criticism was unfounded he tried to explain things to them. He subjected himself  to rigorous self-criticism. Whenever there was any lapse on his part, he would shut himself in a room of  his house and then loudly reprimand himself. If he beat any body with his whip inadvertently and such  punishment was found to be unjustified he would ask the person concerned to beat him with the whip in  the same way as he had beaten him. During the famine he refused to take ghee or meat simply because  the people of average means could not afford such food. He was the ruler of vast dominions but he  denied himself all privileges of rulership. The allowance that he drew was just enough for a person of  average means. When the people around him insisted that his allowance should be raised, he refused to  accept any increase. And when he died he willed that after the sale of his property the entire amount of  the allowance that he had drawn should be refunded to the treasury.

He set very high standards of integrity, and was the first to practice what he preached. His son ‘Abdullah  was a very talented man but he refused to give him any office. One of his sons Abu Shama was found  guilty of drinking and Umar had him flogged to death. Once a Governor gave some gift to one of his wives.  Umar returned the gift and rebuked the Governor. Once a wife of Umar sent some perfume as a gift to the  wife of the emperor of Byzantine. The wife of the emperor of Byzantine sent some gift in return. Umar sold  the gift and credited the proceeds to the state treasury.

He ate the coarsest of food, and wore clothes of the coarsest of cloth. Once he was late for the Friday  prayer and the explanation that he offered was that he had his clothes washed, and they took some time  to dry which delayed his departure for the mosque Umar the ruler of the largest empire of the time had  only one shirt in his wardrobe and that too was patched. When the envoy of the Byzantine emperor came  to Madina, he expected that the Caliph would be living in a heavily guarded palace. The envoy found no  palace and no guard. He found the Caliph sitting in the mosque in the company of ordinary people. Umar  was the living embodiment of the doctrine of equality before law. Once he appeared in a suit in a law  court and when the Judge wanted to show him some respect for the office he held, he desired that no  preference should be shown to him in any way and that the law must have its course. When a messenger  riding a dromedary came from Iraq carrying the news of the victory of the Muslims at the battle of  Qadisiyya, Umar met the messenger a few miles outside Madina and ran all the way by the side of the  dromedary of the messenger hearing the news and without disclosing his identity to the man who had  brought the news. When Umar went to Palestine to receive the surrender of the city of Jerusalem the  world witnessed the strange spectacle of Umar’s slave riding the camel, and Umar the mighty Caliph,  walking on foot holding the reins of the camel.

Umar would perambulate the streets of Madina at night carrying his whip in his hand. The whip would  freely descend on any one found guilty of any lapse or excess regardless of his status. Once a chief was  found passing through the streets of Madina at the head of a procession of his followers. Umar whipped  him for this display of arrogance. A prince of Syria who had accepted Islam and was staying at Madina and  Mecca as a state guest slapped a man who accidentally trod on his feet in the course of the Hajj. Umar  laid down that the man who had been slapped could in turn slap the prince.

Umar kept a watch over the people as a shepherd would keep a watch over his animals. A blind woman in  Madina had no one to attend to her needs. Umar visited her frequently and attended to her needs. In a  cottage a woman was found cooking stone in a kettle merely to give the children the impression that food  was being cooked for them whereas there was nothing in the house to be cooked. Umar carried a bag of  flour and other eatables on his own back and handed them over to the lady. A Bedouin and his wife came  to Madina and were in a predicament as the lady suffered from the pains of childbirth. Umar’s wife acted  as a midwife and Umar sat all the time outside the tent awaiting the birth of a child.

He took particular care to appoint men of approved integrity to high offices under the state. He watched  over them like a hawk, and as soon as any lapse on their part came to the notice of Umar immediate  action was taken. People were free to complain against their officers. Impartial enquiries were held and  when any officer was found guilty he was removed and punished. All the Governors were required to  assemble at Mecca on the occasion of the Hajj, and here any person could complain against any officer.  Umar exhorted all concerned to realize that the officers were not meant to rule; they were there to serve  the people, and build up a welfare state. Umar’s concept of administration was:

“By God he that is weakest among you shall be in my eyes the strongest until I have vindicated for him  his right. He that is strongest I will treat as the weakest until he complies with law.”

No political thinker or ruler since Umar has been able to come forward with a better concept of the  purpose of the state than the concept enunciated by Umar. About the ruler and the ruled relationship,  Umar said:

“People generally hate their ruler and I seek protection of Allah lest my people should entertain similar  feelings about me.”

Some of his standing instructions to his executive were: “Avoid vain suspicions; keep away from malice;  do not encourage people to cherish vain hopes; be careful in respect of Allah’s property in your charge;  be accessible to the people; guard yourself against evil men; seek the company of the righteous; attend  to your job with due diligence; do not procrastinate in the dispatch of state business; watch your  subordinates; take immediate action against those who are corrupt or inefficient; and award merit.” All  these instructions given 1,400 years ago would be as true today as these were then.

Umar stood for quick and impartial justice. Umar appointed capable and upright persons as Judges. He  instructed his Judges in the following terms:

“Justice is an important obligation. Treat the people equally in your presence, in your company, and in  your decisions, so that the weak despair not of justice and the high placed have no hope of your favor .  When you are in doubt on a question and find nothing about it in the Quran or in the Sunna of the  Prophet think over the question; ponder over the precedents and analogous cases and then decide by  analogy.”

Umar took special pains to project Islam in the proper perspective as a living faith. There was a school of  thought who held that religion was mystical and supra-rational and as such the injunctions of religion  including Islam were not to be tested on the basis of intellect or reason. Umar founded what later came  to be called Israr Ilmuddin. He held that Islam was a rational religion and all its injunctions and practices  could be tested and justified on the basis of reason and intellect. He was the first Muslim to undertake  Ijtihad, and lay down new laws in keeping with the spirit of Islam. In the Holy Quran no punishment was  laid down for drinking. Umar laid down a penalty of 80 lashes in this behalf. The position about Mutah was  not clear. ‘ Umar forbade Mutah. The position about three divorces was not clear. Umar held that even  when three divorces were announced at one sitting the divorce was irrevocable. In the month of  Ramadan Umar enjoined upon the Muslims to offer Tarawik in congregation.

Umar took pains to ensure that the faish of Islam should remain pure and should have no characteristic of  idolatry about it. The tree under which the Holy Prophet took the oath of allegiance on the occasion of the  Hudaybiah pact came to he regarded by the people as something sacred. Umar had the tree uprooted to  avoid idolatrous veneration thereof. On the way from Madina to Mecca there was a mosque where the  Holy Prophet had once said his prayers. It became the practice that the pilgrims offered extra prayers at  the mosque. Umar forbade the practice. The Black Stone at the Kaaba came to be held as sacred. Umar  held that it was just a stone. At one stage the Holy Prophet had ordered Rummal in Hajj, under which the  first rounds in the case of the Kaaba were to be performed running. Umar was of the view that Rummal  had been provided under circumstances which no longer existed. He did not abrogate the practice but  nevertheless held that if some body could not run that did not matter.

Umar is known for his humanitarian reforms. He provided privileges for slaves. He emancipated girl slaves  who bore their masters children. Full protection was afforded to the Dhimmis. In the matter of citizenship  they were treated at par with other citizens.

In the social field Umar took particular steps to build a social order according to the teachings of Islam.  Prohibition was enforced with great strictness. It was the practice with Arab poets to mention the names  of their beloveds in their poetry. Umar prohibited the practice. The poets also indulged in satires and  lampoons. Umar issued strict instructions that no poet should write satires and lampoons. Umar also  ordered that in their verses the poets should not extol non-Islamic virtues. Umar laid down that no  person, howsoever rich should build a double storeyed house, and no house should comprise more than  three rooms.

The political and social order that Umar set up by applying the principles of Islam was more democratic  than the democracies of today and more socialist than the socialist countries of today. That order has  remained the ideal for all Muslim countries to revive.

Because of his achievements, Umar occupies an outstanding place in the history of the world. We do not  come across any other ruler in world history who led so simple a life and yet inspired awe and terror  among his people and his foes alike. The awe and fear that Umar commanded was because of his high  moral character People feared him because he feared God. Umar was an embodiment of the virtues of  Islam. About him the Holy Prophet said:

“If God had wished that there should have been another prophet after me, he would have been Umar.”

About Umar we can appropriately say what Girami said of Iqbal, namely:

“In the eyes of those who know the secret of things, He fulfilled a prophet’s role, but he cannot be called  a prophet.”

Chronology

Umar led a very eventful life. We narrate hereunder in chronological order the main events in the life of  Umar.

Umar was born in Mecca around 580 A.D. He started independent business around 600 A.D. He married in  the first decade of the seventh century.

He was converted to Islam in 616 A.D. at the age of 26. He migrated to Madina in 622 A.D.

He participated in the battle of Badr in 623 A.D.

He participated in the battle of Uhud in 625 A.D. A few months after the battle of Uhud, Hasah the  daughter of Umar was married to the Holy Prophet of Islam.

In 627 Umar participated in the battle of the Ditch and the campaign against Banu Mustaliq.

In 628 Umar was present on the occasion of the Hudaybiah pact. Thereafter he participated in the Khyber  campaign. He divorced his wives Qariba and Malaika who did not accept Islam. He married Sabiha and  Jamila.

In 630 Umar participated in the conquest of Mecca and in the campaigns of Hunain and Ta’if.

In 632 he participated in the farewell pilgrimage. This year the Holy Prophet died. Umar played an  important role in getting Abu Bakr elected as the Caliph.

Abu Bakr died in 634, and Umar became the Caliph. During this year the Muslims captured Damascus on  the Syrian front. On the Iraq front there was the battle of Namaraq in September; the battle of Kaskar in  October and the battle of the Bridge in November 634 A D.

In 635 Umar married Atika. During the Ramadan Umar organized Tarawih on congregation basis. On the  Syrian front the battle of Fahl was fought in January. Beisan and Tabariyya were captured in March. The  battle of Marj Rum was fought in March whereby Damascus was reoccupied. In April the Muslim forces  reached Emessa and a truce was arrived at. In the Southern Iraq sector Ubala was captured in April. The  region of Aburqubaz and Meisan was occupied in November.

In 636 Umar introduced the Hijri calendar. In Central Syria the city of Emessa was captured in March. In  Southern Syria the Muslims won the battle of Yermuk in August. the battle of Ajnadin was fought in  December. On the Iraq front the battle of Qadisiyya was won by the Muslims in November. Thereafter  began the march to Al-Mada’in. The battles of Burs, Babylon and Sura on the way to Mada’in were fought  in December.

In 637 Umar married Umm Hakim. This year stipends and allowances were sanctioned for the Muslims. On  the Syrian front Qinissrin, Aleppo, and Antioch were captured. The whole of North Syria was cleared of the  Byzantines. On the Iraq front Mada’in was captured in April. Takeet and Mosul were occupied in May. The  battle of Jalaula was won in November. Khanqueen and Qirqassia were occupied in December.

In 638 Umar adopted the title of ‘Amir-ul-Mumnin.’ The Jews and Christians were expelled from Arabia  proper and settled in Iraq and Syria. On the Syfian front Jerusalem and Caesaria were captured. On the  Iraq front Hulwan, Masabzan, Heet and Ahwaz were captured. During the year the city of Kufa was  established in Central Iraq, and the city of Basra in Southern Iraq.

In 639 Arabia was afflicted by a severe famine. Umar organized relief measures on a large scale. Plague  broke out in Syria and Iraq and caused considerable havoc. Amr bin Al-Aas marched to Egypt. On the Iraq  front Ahwaz, Dauraq and Ram Hormuz were occupied by the Muslims.

In 640 there were battles of Farma, Bilbeis and Babylon in Egypt which were won by the Muslims. On the  Iraq front there was the battle of Tustar which was won by the Muslims, In 641 the Muslims captured  Alexandria on the Egyptian front Sus was occupied on the Iraq front in January. On this front Jande Sabur  was occupied in March. The historic battle of Nihawand was won by the Muslims in December.

In 641 an expedition was undertaken to Nubia. The Muslims advanced to Burqa and Fezzan in North  Africa. During this year the city of Fustat was founded as the capital of Egypt. On the Persian front war  was carried and the Muslims occupied Hamadan, Isfahan, Rayy, Tabaristan, Fars and Sistan.

In 643 the Muslims occupied Sabrata and Tripoli but these advance posts were subsequently abandoned  and the Muslims withdrew to Egypt. On the Persian front Khurasan and Azerbaijan were occupied by the  Muslims during the year.

During 644 Makran and Armenia were occupied. During this year Umar was assassinated and that was  the end of a glorious and eventful career.Type your paragraph here.

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